Archive for the ‘Technical’ Category

OK, I know it’s Monday, but let’s talk hydrodynamics (the type of word that can be dropped casually into a conversation about wine to impress your friends)!

When it comes to serious wine tasting one of the very first steps in the process is the so called ‘swirling’, necessary to release the bouquet of the wine. The theory behind it is that a gentle circular movement of the glass generates a wave propagating along the glass walls, enhancing oxygenation and mixing. In simple terms this action spreads the surface area of wine exposed in order to make the aromas more prominent.

Scientifically speaking this motion is not yet fully understood – it is all to do with fluid dynamics and the wave shapes generated by this simple movement. Suffice to say that it can make a real difference to the olfactory sensation that you will experience.

By the way, please don’t do what I have seen a few would-be ‘wine connoisseurs’ doing at the table – holding their glass stationery and moving their nose back and forth across the glass. Apart from making yourself giddy, this 70’s disco head movement will have no effect on the bouquet of your wine! 

Posted in Tasting, Technical

Oxford knows best!

October 26th, 2017

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One of the questions that we are sometimes asked is – why don’t we use screwcap for sealing our our wines? There are actually a couple of answers to this question. Closures have always been a subject of great interest to me, something that I have studied very closely for many years now. The fact that we now use a synthetic closure (with zero carbon footprint) was not a choice that was made casually, perhaps driven by cost – it was a long-studied and carefully considered decision. Indeed, with our current synthetic closure we know that we can, to some extent, now control the evolution of our wines (or at the very least, influence it’s shelf life). Not forgetting, of course, that evolution will also be determined by how the wine is stored….

A recent study, by Oxford University no less, is claiming that perhaps a cork is the right choice – that wines closed with a cork actually do taste better than those under screwcap. A very bold, and perhaps somewhat contentious claim! Having said that, they do qualify this by saying that the ‘ceremony’ of extracting the cork might have something to do with this. That subliminally this process adds a little ‘romance’ to the wine drinking experience – perhaps adding to the anticipation? One of the researching professors added “Our senses are intrinsically linked – what we hear, see and feel has a huge effect on what we taste”. They also went on to say that corked bottles were more likely to induce a “celebratory mood”, and we all know that our mood, surroundings and the company that we keep can all influence our perception of a wine.

My final comment is that we are very happy with our current choice of closure, as are the majority of our customers. This is rarely an area for complaint which pretty much supports the old adage “If it ain’t broken, then don’t fix it”! 

For many years I have been under a slight misapprehension…. that irrigation of the vineyards was, at the very least, frowned upon, and to some extent, illegal! I think that this is probably a throw back to my early days in the wine trade, when the majority of ‘old world’ countries did not allow a single drop of water to be used in the vineyards, whilst the ‘new world’ producers (who used it extensively) were considered by Europe as charlatans, spraying water everywhere with impunity.

The interesting fact is that since around the turn of the millennium, things have been changing – but in a very quiet, almost stealth-like manner, as the traditional wine producing areas of Europe slowly adopted their wine laws to allow irrigation to be introduced. Certainly this is still done with an element of control as, for example, in some areas it is only allowed during certain summer months.

Of course, having made all the initial fuss about the ‘cheating’ new world producers, the old world soon came to accept (persuaded perhaps by the onset of global-warming), that allowing the use of water was actually quite a sensible thing. For me personally, the idea of irrigation is quite similar to the use of treatments in a vineyard – no sensible producer is going to sit back and watch his fruit rot on the vine if there is some step that he can take to prevent it. Yes, we all use products that are as ecological as possible to treat our vines, but in the end it’s all still a form of intervention. And so, logically, if your vines are wilting in the heat (and consuming all their sugars to survive), then just give them a drop of water – no so much as to inflate the berries, just just enough to keep them ‘comfortable’.

Today’s photo shows the drip irrigation that we have just added to our bodega vineyard, where the upper part can be particularly dry in hot weather. The irony is that, as I write this, it’s actually raining!

BiodynamicA week or so ago I wrote about tasting the tanks of our 2016 wines, and the fact that that I had decided to taste them on a day determined by my 2017 Biodynamic tasting calendar. I have mentioned this calendar on previous occasions, but just to recap quickly, it suggests that wine will taste differently on different days of the month according to the phases of the moon. The best days are known as ‘fruit’ or ‘flower’ days, the bad days are ‘leaf’ or ‘root’.

I confess that I originally stumbled upon this idea more or less by accident, when I often imagined that our wines appeared to taste better on certain days of the week, but couldn’t really pinpoint the reason why. I subsequently read about the theory of tasting cycles and the biodynamic calendar, and despite remaining sceptical, decided to buy a copy. Of course, the power of suggestion is very strong, and we can all be influenced or have our perception changed by having a certain idea being offered to us in advance. Anyway, to cut a long story short, I find that this concept works for me, and the days that I chose to taste are now more often than not decided by a quick glance at the calendar. And I am not the only one – large organisations such as Tesco and Marks & Spencer, as well as important cellars such as Pol Roger and Maison Joseph Drouhin also use this calendar as a point of reference.

The reason that I am revisiting this subject now is simply because a New Zealand scientific study into the Biodynamic calendar has just been published. “The findings reported in the present study provide no evidence in support of the notion that how a wine tastes is associated with the lunar cycle,” the researchers concluded. The methodology was simple – 19 New Zealand wine professionals making blind tastings of 12 Pinot Noirs, four times, twice on a fruit day and twice on a root day, using 20 descriptors including  aroma, taste and mouthfeel. They concluded that the lunar cycle did not influence their perceptions. (I should mention that atmospheric pressure was also taken into account as some believe that this can also influence taste).

Perhaps the surprising point is that despite these findings, some wine professionals (including MW’s) say that they still retain their faith in support of the calendar… including me!

CorcsPeople who know me also know that I am passionate about wine closures. As a wine buyer I could never understand why a producer would go to so much trouble growing superb quality grapes, converting them into the best wine possible, and then cutting corners by trying to save a few cents on the price of a cork. For example, it is rare for the bottle to have a significant effect on the quality of a finished wine, but the cork? That’s a whole other story….

In addition to this, I also have a theory that certain types of closure work better with certain types of wine. Of course I could be completely wrong, but at Castro Martin it has been our mission to find the closure that provides the very best protection specific to our own albariño – preserving our wine in exactly the way that we want, whilst providing a consistency of quality to each and every bottle. The only way to do this has been by extensive testing.

After a prolonged period of testing involving a wide range of different closures, extensive tastings, carefully measuring OTR (oxygen transmission rate) and generally following the evolution of our wine from tank to bottle ageing, we were eventually able to make a decision based purely on our findings. The synthetic closure that we finally selected allows only a controlled rate of oxygen transfer and therefore behaves in a much more predictable fashion than natural cork (and that is before we even start to consider TCA – cork taint). The absence of cork taint is really just an added bonus for us when using synthetic.

These days we are using the very latest closure, made from polymers of sugar cane, boasting zero carbon footprint and probably the most Eco-friendly closure on the planet. This latest ‘Bio’ corc can be seen on the far right of today’s picture, and as you can see, is barely distinguishable from a natural cork. My photo shows how our range of closures has evolved over recent years.

White wineBiodynamic, organic or sustainable? What’s the difference? This is a question that causes quite a few headaches, not only for the wine industry in general, but also, more importantly, for the poor confused consumer buying the finished wine. It is also one of the questions that we are most frequently asked by our own importers and customers, and it is a question that we always answer truthfully (even when we know that being economical with the truth might help to widen our potential consumer base).

By far the most complicated to achieve is biodynamic, and for most producers in Rias Baixas is an unattainable status, mostly owing to the damp conditions that we endure in this corner of Spain. To be fully biodynamic doesn’t just mean farming grapes without chemicals, but actually treats the vineyard as an ecosystem, taking into account astrological influences and lunar cycles etc. A true biodynamic wine is also made without any of the common manipulations such as yeast additions or acidity adjustments. Just one obvious reason why Rias Baixas cannot really produce biodynamic wine is because albariño’s naturally occurring yeast flora, by itself, simply cannot sustain a complete alcoholic fermentation.

In the category of organic, there are two types of wine. Those made from organically grown grapes that don’t use any synthetic additives or treatments, or the higher level of completely ‘organic wine’ that uses organic grapes but also doesn’t add sulphites to the wine (although it can include any naturally occurring sulphites).

Sustainable wine (such as our own Castro Martin wines), are made using a range of practices that are not only ecologically sound, but also economically viable and socially responsible. We adopt many of the practices that will be used in organic or biodynamic farming but have a little flexibility to include practices that suit our individual needs. Clearly, we are not going to sit back and watch our fruit rot on the vines if we can take steps to prevent it from happening….. Sustainability also means that we focus on things like water and energy conservation, as well as the use of renewable resources.

As far as selecting your wine is concerned, the simple rule is – if in doubt, read the label!

BCM Fiche

We have just updated the ‘wine information sheets’ on our website, or at least the English versions (Spanish will follow very soon). They can be found on the DOWNLOADS page, that also includes bottle shots, labels, vintage reports and a couple of other, hopefully useful, things.

My only problem is that I never quite know what to call these particular documents. Personally, I have always called them ‘Fiche Technique’, but I guess that could because much of my wine education was made in France. Of course here in Spain that translates into ‘Ficha Técnica’, whilst I believe that in the States they are sometimes called ‘Cheat Sheets’. Whatever your language, these smart new pages are now available for download.

Posted in Technical, Websites

Corc evolution

September 4th, 2015

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Bio ClosureThere has always been a certain stigma attached to synthetic closures, not necessarily because of the way they perform, but usually more to do with the way they look. Don’t worry, at this point I’m not going to launch into one of my long lectures about the pro’s and con’s of our corcs (with a ‘c’), but merely wanted to point out that their evolution continues.

As you will probably know, the Nomacorc product that we already use is the World’s first zero carbon footprint wine closure, made entirely from renewable, plant-based polymers. They are also manufactured using 100% renewable energy and the process uses only minimal amounts of water, making them ideal for sustainable wine producers.

To address the problem of their appearance Nomacorc have now released a new design, that we have just used for the first time this week. Today’s picture shows the old design on the right, and our modified, new design on the left. My guess is that without giving our new corc a very close inspection the vast majority of consumers will not even notice that it’s synthetic!

MouseThere is a chemical compound that can sometimes develop in wine called 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, or ACTPY for short. The aroma is described as being like “caged mice and cracker biscuits”, and believe it or not, it is actually very difficult to smell (simply because it is a basic compound). It is much more likely that you will detect it on your palate as it’s release will be triggered by your own pH. Wine is obviously acidic and it is only when you put the wine in your mouth that the pH increases and the compound returns to its aromatic form, allowing it to be tasted.

Owing to the time it takes for this reaction to take place the evolution of the mousey flavour can be delayed…it might take about 30 seconds or so to develop on your palate. If you taste it in a line up of several wines it is important to identify the right wine as the culprit, and make sure that this off flavour isn’t carried over from a previous wine! The sensation can also persist in your mouth for several minutes and therefore it can be difficult to taste other wines afterwards.

There are two main origins of this off-flavour– microbial and chemical. If it’s microbial, it comes from strains of lactic acid bacteria or yeast, and if its origin is chemical, it is associated with the process of hyperoxidation (when hydrogen peroxide is used to remove SO2 from juice or wine). Thankfully, the latter is not a process that we use at Castro Martin. At this time there are no methods for measuring the level of mousiness in wines, and detection is still reliant on tasters, sensitive to this off-flavour. The other bad news is  that there’s also no verified ways to remove the character, other than blending away the affected wine.

As with any microbial and chemical fault in wine, prevention is always better than cure!

Posted in Tasting, Technical

No more headaches!

December 2nd, 2013

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HangoverSulphur dioxide (SO2) is widely used in winemaking as a preservative and antibacterial agent, but for some people it can have a very unpleasant side-effect. The quantities used in a finished wine are strictly regulated and are so small (measured in parts per million) that they shouldn’t really cause any health problems. However, it is alleged that some people can suffer from headaches or have breathing difficulties triggered by drinking these trace amounts of SO2 (although this statement is probably quite unfair as there are other compounds, such as tyramines and histamines that can also contribute to the problem).

Eliminating the need for sulphur in wine would therefore be more than welcome news for these consumers, and it might just be that researchers at Penn State University have come up with a suitable alternative – chelator. Chelation is a process where molecules bind with metal ions, and it is suggested that this technique could be used to remove trace metals in wine. By simply adding compounds that bind to the iron, such as phytic acid (found naturally in grape juice), oxidation in wine is prevented. In addition to this it was also discovered that these chelators could inhibit the formation of acetaldehyde, which robs a wine of its fruity, freshness and is the precursor of vinegar-like acetic acid. Celebrations all ’round…. well, maybe not quite yet.

The question is how much this could it affect the other properties of wine or whether it could have any other, unwanted side-effects, such as changing the way a wine matures over time. Only time and a lot more testing will reveal the answers, but the days of adding sulphur to wine might just be numbered.

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